Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement


Journal of Public Administration Science: Policy Dynamics, Public Services, and Bureaucracy Transformation (J. Public Adm. Sci., ISSN: xxxxx (online), ISSN: xxxxx (print)) is an International Journal managed and published by the XMC Publisher, which is committed to upholding the highest standards of publication ethics and taking all possible action against publication malpractices. This statement describes the ethical behavior of all parties involved in the act of publishing articles in this journal, including authors, editor-in-chief, associate editors, editorial boards, reviewers, and publishers. This statement is based on COPE’s Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors. Our responsibility is to publish original value work to the intellectual community in the best form and the highest possible standard.

As an essential requirement, all articles submitted to the Journal of Public Administration Science: Policy Dynamics, Public Services, and Bureaucracy Transformation must be original works that have never been published before and submitted exclusively to the Journal of Public Administration Science: Policy Dynamics, Public Services, and Bureaucracy Transformation. For some relevant manuscripts, it must be compiled in the context of the "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals" ( established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and updated in December 2019. All articles in this journal involving human subjects should respect the principles of research ethics as set out in the Declaration of Helsinki. Animal studies should comply with the International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals developed by the Council for the International Organization of Medical Sciences (CIOMS).

The publication of an article in the Journal of Public Administration Science: Policy Dynamics, Public Services, and Bureaucracy Transformation is an essential building block in developing a respected network of knowledge. The publication of scientific information depends heavily on trust. Editors rely on peer reviewers for confidentiality and practical assessments, authors trust peer selection editors, and readers trust the peer review process. Appropriate decisions and solid editorial processes will stimulate an efficient publishing system. It is essential to agree upon standards of expected ethical behavior for all parties involved in the act of publishing: the authors, the editors, the reviewers, and the publisher.



Reporting Standard

The article's authors should present accurate data of the work and an objective discussion of its relevance. The underlying data should be accurately represented in the paper. The paper should contain sufficient detail and references to allow others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly incorrect statements constitute unethical behavior and are not acceptable. Review and professional publication articles should also be accurate and objective, and editorial opinions should be clearly identified as such.

Data Access and Retention

Authors may be asked to provide raw data in connection with the editorial review paper and should be prepared to provide public access to such data, where practicable, and should, in any event, be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable period of time after publication.

Originality and Plagiarism

The authors should guarantee that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the works and/or the words of others, they have been promptly cited or referenced. Plagiarism takes many forms, from 'passing away' another paper as an author's own paper to copying or paraphrasing substantial parts of another paper (without attribution) to claiming results from research/community services by others. Plagiarism, in all its forms, constitutes an unethical behavior of publishing and is unacceptable. We will check each manuscript using Plagiarism Checker X Professional and Turnitin to ensure the article's authenticity, as shown in the Plagiarism Policy.

Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Publication

An author should not, in general, publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research/community services in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. In general, an author should not submit for consideration in another journal a previously published paper. Publishing some articles (e.g., clinical guidelines, translations) in more than one journal is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. The authors and editors of the journals concerned must agree to the secondary publication, reflecting the same data and interpretation of the primary document. The primary reference must be cited in the secondary publication. The authors and editors of the journals concerned must agree to the secondary publication, reflecting the same data and interpreting the primary document. In the secondary publication, the primary reference must be cited.

 Acknowledgment of Sources

Proper recognition of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have influenced the nature of the work reported. Information obtained privately, such as conversations, correspondence, or discussions with third parties, shall not be used or reported without explicit written permission from the source. Information obtained in the course of confidential services, such as reference manuscripts or grant applications, may not be used without the author's express written permission of the work involved in these services.

Authorship of the Paper

Authorship should be limited to those who have contributed to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported research/community services. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where others have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research/community services project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the paper. All co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication. In general, the authorship of the article is based on the role and contribution of the author of the article produced, including:
1. Conceptualization
2. Data curation
3. Formal analysis
4. Funding acquisition
5. Investigation
6. Methodology
7. Project administration
8. Resources
9. Software
10. Supervision
11. Validation
12. Visualization
13. Writing the original draft
14. Writing review and editing (

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

All authors should disclose any financial or other material conflict of interest in their manuscript that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed. Examples of potential conflicts of interest that should be disclosed include employment, consultancies, shareholdings, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Potential conflicts of interest should be disclosed at the earliest possible stage. For research/community services that receive grants from an institution, both governmental and private, the number of grants received must also be included by the authors.

Figure Integrity

Editing figures such as enhancing, blurring, moving, deleting, or editing certain features in figures is not acceptable. Brightness, contrast, or color balance adjustments are acceptable if and as long as they do not obscure or omit any information contained in the original figures. Manipulating figures for better clarity is acceptable, but manipulation for other purposes can be considered an abuse of scientific ethics and will be handled accordingly. Authors must adhere to any specific policies for graphic figures adopted by the  Journal of Public Administration Science: Policy Dynamics, Public Services, and Bureaucracy Transformation, e.g., provide original figures as supplementary material with articles or store them in other freely accessible places such as institutional repositories.

Fundamental Errors in Published Works

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in their own published work, it is the author's obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper. If the editor or the publisher learns from a third party that a published work contains a significant error, it is the obligation of the author to promptly retract or correct the paper or provide evidence to the editor of the correctness of the original paper.



The editors of Journal of Public Administration Science: Policy Dynamics, Public Services, and Bureaucracy Transformation are responsible for deciding which articles should be published after peer-review by at least two reviewers who are experts in their fields. The validation of the work in question and its importance to researchers and readers must always drive such decisions. The editors may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement, and plagiarism. The editors may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.

Fair Play

Editors evaluate submitted manuscripts based exclusively on their academic merit (importance, originality, study validity, clarity) and their relevance to the scope of the journal, regardless of the author's race, gender, sexual orientation, ethnic origin, nationality, religious beliefs, political philosophy or institutional affiliation. The decision to edit and publish is not determined by government policy or other institutions outside the journal. The Editor-in-Chief has complete authority over all editorial content of the journal and at the time of publication of that content.


Editor-in-chief and editorial boards may not disclose any information on the submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial consultants, and publishers, as appropriate. Unpublished materials disclosed in the submitted manuscript shall not be used in the publisher's research/community services without the author's express written consent. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

All editors should disclose any financial or other material conflict of interest in their manuscript that might be constrained to influence the results or interpretation of the manuscript. It is the duty of the Editor-in-Chief to ensure that the Associate Editor in charge does not come from the same institution as the authors.

Management of Unethical Behavior(s)

Editors and publishers should take responsive action rationally when ethical complaints have been raised regarding published manuscripts. Any reported acts of unethical publishing behavior will be examined, even if discovered years after publication.



Contribution to Editorial Decisions

Peer reviewers assist the editor in making editorial decisions, and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the quality of a paper.


Any selected reviewers who feel unqualified to review the research/community services reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editors and excuse themself from the review process.


Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.

Standards of Objectivity

Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. The reviewers should express their views clearly with supporting rationale arguments.

Acknowledgment of Sources

Reviewers should identify the source of references that the authors have not cited. The relevant citation should accompany any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported. A reviewer should also call the editor's attention to any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper they have personal knowledge of.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships with any of the authors or institutions connected to the papers.



As a publisher, the XMC Publisher is committed to ensuring that commercial interests have no impact or influence on editorial decisions. The XMC Publisher will assist in communication with other journals both internally and externally, useful for authors. The XMC Publisher works closely with all relevant divisions to set best-practice standards on ethical issues, errors, and repeal; and is ready to provide specialized legal review and advice.



In any form of established ethical publications, malpractice will lead to applying sanctions and other actions needed to ensure all articles published by Journal of Public Administration Science: Policy Dynamics, Public Services, and Bureaucracy Transformation. In cases of suspected misconduct, the Editors and the Editorial Board will use the best practices of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) to assist them in resolving the complaint and dealing fairly with the misconduct. This will include an investigation of the Editors' allegation. A submitted manuscript that is found to contain such misconduct will be rejected. If the published paper has been found to contain such misconduct, the retraction may be published and linked to the original article.